estimate、appraise、assess、evaluate、value与rate这些动词均有“估价、估计”之意。

estimate : 通常指由个人作出的主观估价。

  • Government sources estimate a long-term 50 percent increase in rail fares.
    政府消息人士估计火车票价将有一个涨幅达50%的长期上调。
  • They estimate (that) the journey will take at least two weeks.
    他们估计这次行程至少需要两周时间。
  • It was difficult to estimate how many trees had been destroyed.
    很难估计有多少树被毁。

appraise : 指以专家身份作了最终精确的估价。

  • At the end of each teaching practice, trainee teachers are asked to appraise their own performance.
    在每次教学实习结束时,都要求实习教师对自己的表现作自我评定。
  • In cooperation with other professionals, social workers will appraise the individual’s needs.
    社会工作者将与其他专业人士携手合作,对个体的需要作出评估。
  • He coolly appraised the situation, deciding which person would be most likely to succeed.
    他冷静地审时度势,判断哪个人最可能获得胜利。

assess : 原义指对为确定交多少税而估计,引申指通过估价以便更好利用。

  • The insurers will need to assess the flood damage.
    保险公司需要对洪水造成的损失进行估定。
  • They assessed the cost of the flood damage at £2,500.
    他们估定洪水造成的损失为2500英镑。
  • Exams are not the only means of assessing a student’s ability.
    考试并不是评定学生能力的唯一手段。
  • It’s too early to assess the long-term consequences of the two countries’ union.
    现在判定两国联盟的长期影响还为时过早。
  • We need to assess whether the project is worth doing.
    我们需要评估一下这个项目是否值得去做。

evaluate与appraise相似,指使判断绝对准确,但多用于对人物的某方面的评价,很少用于评价某物的市场价值。

  • It’s impossible to evaluate these results without knowing more about the research methods employed.
    如不能对使用的研究方法有更多了解,就无法对其结果作出评价。
  • We shall need to evaluate how the new material stands up to wear and tear.
    我们需要对新材料的耐磨损度作出鉴定。

value : 侧重指一般人对某物的价值或价格所作的估计。

  • He valued the painting at $2,000.
    他给那幅画估价2000美元。
  • The insurance company said I should have my jewellery valued.
    保险公司说我应当把我的首饰进行估价。

rate : 专指评定价值等级的高低。

  • How do you rate him as a football player?
    你怎么评价他作为一个足球运动员的表现?
  • She is rated very highly by the people she works for.
    雇主对她的评价都很高。
  • “What do you think of her as a singer?” “I don’t really rate her (= I do not think that she is very good).”
    “你认为她作为一个歌手表现如何?”“我认为她不怎么样。”
  • I rate cars as one of the worst polluters of the environment.
    我认为汽车是污染环境的罪魁祸首之一。
  • On a scale of one to ten, I’d rate his book a five.
    满分是10分的话,我给他这本书打5分。
  • Traffic accidents are so frequent that they don’t rate a mention (= are not considered to be worth reporting) in the newspaper unless a lot of people are killed.
    撞车事故太频繁了,所以除非造成多人死亡,否则报纸对这样的事儿都不屑一提。
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